As many countries are integrating renewable energy sources into their energy generation makeup, an opportunity arises to design energy systems that are more just. Policymakers should consider the ways that extraction, generation, distribution, pricing, and disposal of energy impacts people and planet. This dissertation aims to help policymakers explore the energy justice of renewable energy systems through a case study of lead-acid batteries in India. Blackboxing and risk society theories guide thematic analysis of sources, including stakeholder interviews and academic and grey literature. The history of lead-acid batteries in India is introduced to illustrate the variety of ways people’s interests are reflected in battery uses. By determining how the 2001 Battery Manufacturing and Handling Rules constructs lead toxicity risk, this study concludes that distributive and perhaps procedural justice are being denied to informal and formal sector lead-acid battery recycling workers and communities, indicating a need for revisions of the recycling rules. Furthermore, it underlies the importance of research focusing on battery-worker perspectives and raises questions about trans-national energy justice.